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There was no opportunity for the Japanese to use their battleships, as the American carriers prudently retired before their approach, while the American battleships had already been sent to the West Coast.

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This was one of the respects in which Midway was no Tsushima a major naval battle fought between Russia and Japan during the Russo-Japanese War; a Japanese victory. The inflexible conviction of Isoroku Yamamoto Japanese Marshal Admiral and commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet of the value of battleships in any battle with the Americans had served him ill. This poor judgment ensured that the Japanese had lost their large-scale offensive capacity at sea, at least as far as carriers were concerned. Conversely, the American admirals may have acted differently had they had battleships at their disposal.

The battle ensured that the Congressional elections on 3 November took place against a more benign background than if earlier in the year. The last major German offensive on the Eastern Front sought to exploit the opportunities provided by a major German salient. They sought to break through the flanks of the salient and to achieve an encirclement triumph to match the Soviet success at Stalingrad the previous winter. Still engaging in strategic wishful thinking, Hitler saw this as a battle of annihilation in which superior will would prevail.

He hoped that victory would undermine the Allied coalition, by lessening western confidence in the likelihood of Soviet victory and increasing Soviet demands for a second front in France. The Germans were outnumbered by the Soviets who had prepared a defence system that thwarted the German tank offensive. After heavy losses and only modest gains, Hitler cancelled the operation that had cost him much strength.


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Having stopped the Germans, the Soviets were now in a position to counterattack. The Germans were now to be driven back in a near-continuous process. American, British and Canadian forces landed in Normandy, as Operation Neptune the landings paved the way for Operation Overlord the invasion. Under the overall command of Eisenhower, the Allies benefited from well-organised and effective naval support for the invasion and from air superiority. In addition, a successful deception exercise, Operation Fortitude, ensured that the Normandy landing was a surprise. The Germans had concentrated more of their defences and forces in the Calais region, which offered a shorter sea crossing and a shorter route to Germany.

Normandy, in contrast, was easier to reach from the invasion ports on the south coast of England, especially Plymouth, Portland and Portsmouth. The Germans lacked adequate naval and air forces to contest an invasion, and much of their army in France was of indifferent quality, short of transport and training, and, in many cases, equipment. German commanders were divided about where the attack was likely to fall and about how best to respond to it. They were particularly split over whether to move their ten panzer divisions close to the coast, so that the Allies could be attacked before they could consolidate their position, or to mass them as a strategic reserve.

The eventual decision was for the panzer divisions, whose impact greatly worried Allied planners, to remain inland, but their ability to act as a strategic reserve was lessened by the decision not to mass them and by Allied air power. This decision reflected the tensions and uncertainties of the German command structure. The fate of the landings was very varied. Specialised tanks developed by the British to attack coastal defences — for example, Crab flail tanks for use against minefields — proved effective in the British sector: Gold, Juno and Sword beaches.

The Canadian and British forces that landed on these beaches also benefited from careful planning and preparation, from the seizure of crucial covering positions by airborne troops, and from German hesitation about how best to respond. The situation was less happy on Omaha beach. The Americans there were inadequately prepared in the face of a good defence, not least because of poor planning and confusion in the landing, including the launching of assault craft and Duplex Drive amphibious Sherman tanks too far offshore, as well as a refusal to use the specialised tanks.

The Americans sustained about 3, casualties, both in landing and on the beach, from positions on the cliffs that had not been suppressed by air attack or naval bombardment. Air power could not deliver the promised quantities of ordnance on target and on time. Eventually the Americans were able to move inland, but, at the end of D-Day, the bridgehead was shallow and the troops in the sector were fortunate that the Germans had no armour to mount a response.

Military writer JFC Fuller pointed out that Overlord marked a major advance in amphibious operations as there was no need to capture a port in order to land, reinforce and support the invasion force. He wrote in the Sunday Pictorial of 1 October It was a change in the conception of naval power which sealed the doom of that great fortress. Hitherto in all overseas invasions the invading forces had been fitted to ships. Now ships were fitted to the invading forces… how to land the invading forces in battle order… this difficulty has been overcome by building various types of special landing boats and pre-fabricated landing stages.

To Fuller, this matched the tank in putting the defence at a disadvantage. The Dieppe operation had shown that attacking a port destroyed it; thus the need to bring two prefabricated harbours composed of floating piers with the invasion. In , the Germans still, mistakenly, anticipated that the Allies would focus on seizing ports. The laying of oil pipelines under the Channel was also an impressive engineering achievement that contributed to the infrastructure of the invasion.


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The experience gained in earlier landings was important, although the scale of the operation and the severity of the resistance on the landing beaches were greater than in North Africa and Italy. It proved difficult for the Allies to break out of Normandy, although they succeeded in doing so in August and were able then to advance on the German frontier. This was not a process in which amphibious operations played a role until in the autumn efforts were made to clear the Scheldt estuary. It was the same the following year. The emphasis was on advances overland and not on amphibious attacks — for example in northern Holland or north-western Germany.

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The situation therefore was very different to that in the Pacific. The Americans used their naval and air superiority, already strong and rapidly growing, to mount a reconquest of the Philippines from October That operation helped ensure a naval battle: that of Leyte Gulf of 23—26 October, the largest naval battle of the war and one or rather a series of engagements that secured American maritime superiority in the western Pacific.

The availability of oil helped determine Japanese naval dispositions and, with carrier formations based in home waters and the battle force based just south of Singapore, any American movement against the Philippines presented a very serious problem for Japan. There was growing pessimism in Japan and losing honourably became a goal for at least some Japanese naval leaders. With Operation Sho-Go Victory Operation the Japanese sought to intervene by luring the American carrier fleet away, employing their own carriers as bait, and then using two naval striking forces under Vice-Admirals Kurita and Kiyohide respectively to attack the vulnerable American landing fleet.

Routledge Library Editions: Japan

This overly complex scheme posed serious problems for the ability of American admirals to read the battle and control the tempo of the battle, and, as at Midway, for their Japanese counterparts in following the plan. In a crisis for the American operation, one of the strike forces was able to approach the landing area and was superior to the American warships. However, instead of persisting, the strike force retired; its exhausted commander, Kurita, lacking knowledge of the local situation, not least due to the difficulties of identifying enemy surface ships.

The net effect of the battle was the loss of four Japanese carriers, three battleships including the Musashi , 10 cruisers, other warships and many aircraft. This made more of an impact than the first bomb, dropped on Hiroshima on 6 August It now seemed likely that the Americans could mount an inexorable process of bombing. As a result, Japan agreed to surrender unconditionally. An Imperial broadcast on 15 August announced the end of hostilities.

The limited American ability to deploy more bombs speedily was not appreciated. Some 6. Long-term health consequences were calamitous.

Why Japan’s Upper House Vote Is So Important

Jeremy Black is a professor of history at the University of Exeter who specialises in British and continental European history. August 28, at am. Pearl Harbor: sailors stand amid wreckage watching as the USS Shaw explodes in the centre background. It demonstrates how rearticulations by right wing discourses in the latter period have depicted peace as something that must be defended actively, and thus as compatible with remilitarisation or military normalisation.

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